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Full text of "Rapid Population Growth Consequences And Policy Implications"

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developed country earns relatively mucn more man an educated person m a developed country. Writing of the situation a few years ago, Lewis stated that "while the average salary of a primary school teacher is less than \% times per capita national income in the United States, a primary school teacher gets three times the per capita national income in Jamaica, five times in Ghana and seven times in Nigeria" (35, p. 137).
In secondary education cost per teacher was 30 times per capita income in Nigeria, compared with 12 times in Jamaica and only 2 times in the United States (35, p. 139). Lewis calculated that to give 8 years of primary education to every child would cost about 0.8 percent of national income in the United States, 1.7 percent in Jamaica, 2.8 percent in Ghana, and 4 percent in Nigeria.
The premium for education decreases as the supply of educated persons rises, but in the meantime the cost constraint is formidable. This is particularly so in view of the relatively greater emphasis on expanding secondary and higher education which cost far more per student than does primary education in these countries. For example, in African countries vocational secondary education is fifteen times and university education fifty-nine times as expensive (per student) as primary education, and in Asia vocational secondary education is six times and university education twenty-three times as expensive as primary education.*
The increase in the teacher force could be held down if the size of classes were allowed to increase. In most developing countries, however, this avenue of escape from the inexorable pressures of rising student numbers is already well trodden: pupil/teacher ratios are well above the optimum, and a major aim of educational planning in most countries is to lower them to more efficient levels. It is possible that closed-circuit television and other technological aids will enable countries to break out of the straight jacket of conventional pupil/teacher ratios, but this is a hope for the future rather than a practicable escape route at the moment. Other innovative approaches to the provision of teaching services, such as Iran's quasi-military "education corps," through which young high school graduates spend 14 months teaching in the villages,' should be viewed more as a device to accelerate the expansion of elementary education in the rural areas than as a method of lowering unit costs, although in fact it may achieve this end to a limited extent.
There is also little chance to economize by preventing teacher salaries for any given level of qualification from rising over time. The teaching "industry" is in an invidious position in that it is a labor-intensive industry. A 10 percent salary increase "usually translates into a 7 to 8 percent increase in its total
*Calculated as an unweighted country average from UNESCO data (2, Table 2.18). A few of the smallest countries were omitted from the calculations, tpor more details, sec (36).ntial will be realized willio of private expenditure to public expenditure on education varies between countries. There is unfortunately a dearth of intercountry comparative information on private expenditures on migration, in the multilingual character of the society, in the existence of polygamy, and